1, 2, and 3-Sheet(s)

The number of sheets refer to the size of the advertisement set in frames that are used for outdoor advertising campaigns. These ads are located strategically in high pedestrian traffic or waiting areas, like a train platform. A 1-Sheet measures 46″ (h) x 30″ (w); a 2-Sheet is the same height but double the width of a one-sheet and measures 46″ (h) by 60″ (w); and a 3-Sheet is the largest size measuring 84″ (h) by 42″ (w).

3rd-Party Data

3rd-Party Data is data collected and collated by an external agency that can be purchased to allow your advertising campaign to reach your required target audience. Such data can be collected through surveys or user agreements that allow information to be shared. Third-party data is charged by a cost per impression (CPM) rate. Advertisers intending to purchase 3rd-party data should specify the exact audience segment, and attain the most updated data for an effective campaign.


The Amazon Advertising Platform (AAP) is a one-stop avenue for advertisers to reach the Amazon audience via Amazon, other websites, and mobile apps. Advertisers can choose from the following four methods of displaying ads: desktop and mobile web display ads, mobile banner ads, mobile interstitial ads, and video ads.

Above The Fold

Content is displayed Above The Fold when a viewer can see it on the screen without having to scroll down.

Action Rate

An Action Rate measures the success of an email campaign. It captures the percentage of email recipients, from the total group of recipients that the email was sent to, who have successfully completed the task of the campaign objective.

Ad completion

Ad Completion is used to describe a video advertisement that has been played in its entirety, i.e. from the beginning of the video to the end. Metrics are designed to measure the most successful format or length of a video that yields the highest percentage of ad completions.

Ad Exchange

An Ad Exchange is a platform marketplace of buyers and sellers of the digital advertising space. The buyers on an ad exchange are ad networks, tradings desks, and demand-side platforms who participate either in real-time bidding or static bidding on behalf of advertisers wishing to buy digital advertising spots. Some ad exchanges include AppNexus, AOL’s Marketplace, and Google’s DoubleClick.

Ad Optimize

Ad Optimization accesses the unique portion of a large, existing advertising inventory to suit a particular advertising need, so that the ad targets the most potential customers. The objective of this strategy is to increase the return on investment of the advertising dollar.

Ad Verification

Ad verification locates the web pages where a buyer’s advertisement has been placed. It is a tracking process used by third-party agencies to generate reports for their clients to confirm that their ads were executed accurately. Ads can also be proactively managed to ensure they are only placed on targeted sites, and thus the ad verification report would be able to prove that the ads were effectively managed according to the stipulations of the client. Ad verification allows better targeting of potential customers, and thus reduces the waste of ad dollars and resources.

Ads Manager

Ads Manager is a tool used by advertisers to manage their digital advertising campaigns. Some ads manager tools allow the advertiser to design the artwork of a campaign, while others may be used to set and adjust the parameters of a campaign. Mature social media sites that offer advertising have their unique ads managers, e.g. Facebook and Twitter call theirs’ Ads Manager, whilst LinkedIn’s is called Campaign Manager.


AdSense is an intuitive advertising program by Google designed to match contextually-related ads and blog content. Bloggers who wish to accept advertising revenue for their content can sign up for AdSense and set up their blog sites to suit the various formats of ads streaming in from AdSense. Bloggers are paid when visitors of their blog click on the ads. Ads are matched and streamed, and directed to a blogger’s site based on four methods of targeting: contextual targeting, placement targeting, language targeting, and personalised targeting.

Advertorial Advertising

Advertorial Advertising markets a service or product through content and write-ups. Most commonly seen as published articles, advertorials informs (or sells) the benefits of the goods or services, and usually have a call-to-buy prompt at the end of the article. It has stronger copy writing adapted into its content, and a more aggressive sales pitch than native advertising articles.


Google AdWords is Google’s free advertising service that charges advertisers only when their ad has been seen, via a pay-per-click business model.


Google AdWords is Google’s advertising service that charges advertisers only when their ad has been seen, via a pay-per-click business model.

Affiliate Marketing

Affiliate Marketing is a performance-based marketing strategy that rewards a campaigner’s affiliates for each customer they draw in, and redirect to the advertiser.


Affinity describes a service or product being naturally likable or acceptable to a consumer.


Artificial Intelligence in digital advertising refers to the use software programs (as opposed to humans) in data analysis to deliver higher targeted profiling results. AI can be adapted for use by advertisers and consumers alike: advertisers can use AI to select a more targeted audience base with set requirements for filtering, and consumers can use AI to filter through online data and only display threads that are compatible to their interests.


An Algorithm, when used as a digital-marketing tool, is a code that is written with the objective to stream collected data for relevance. Within its code, it defines the parameters for filtering data in order to derive the most compatible user profiles for an advertiser to monetize on. Using algorithms to define a target audience base usually delivers a higher rate of buy-in than from unsorted data.


Amazon Marketing Services is Amazon’s advertising service that is only available to Amazon vendors and authors. AMS offers three types of advertising solutions within their Amazon search engine: as a sponsored product, a headline search, or as a product display ad. Advertisers are charged with a price-per-click model, i.e. they only pay when their ad has been clicked on.


An API is the common feature between programs and applications that allows them to interact compatibly with each other, for the convenience of the user.


AppNexus is an independent online advertising company that has developed its own cloud-based digital marketplace which allows for real-time and optimized purchase of digital ad spaces. In 2016, AppNexus was ranked #21 in Forbes Cloud 100 List.

Aspect Ratio

Aspect Ratio is a framework of sizes used by designers to discern how to crop a video or an image for the screen. It is measured by a width to height ration, e.g, 4:3 or 16:9. This framework allows designers to measure their artwork effectively so that its message is not altered when viewed across different medium. Devices like iPhones and Samsungs use the ratio of 16:9 for their screens. Programs like Instagram, being an image-based medium, accepts aspect ratios from 1.91:1 (landscape), 1:1 (square), and 4:5 (vertical).


Astroturfing has the objective to influence opinions on public forums. It usually promotes support for a product or an organisation by taking the stance of a genuine user or stakeholder. Thus, astroturfers usually conceal their true identities and take on multiple false identities, as it is assumed their true identities will present a conflict of interests to the cause they are rooting for on the public forums.

Attribution (in conversion)

An Attribution refers to the individual times a potential customer comes into contact with an advertiser’s product or service. These points of contact, or touchpoints, steer a campaign buyer’s allocation of marketing budget. Analysts study marketing attributions to identify where the point of Conversion is for a unique user, i.e. which specific touchpoint converted a passive audience into an active buyer, or customer.

Audience Exclusion

Audience Exclusion means to segregate a certain viewer demographic from receiving your ads.

Audience Overlap

Audience Overlap refers to a situation when an advertiser’s several ad campaigns reach out to the same audience, and thus bids against each other (or itself).


AudioMatic is a buy-side platform that ad campaigners can buy digital ads from.

Automatic Bidding

Automatic Bidding refers to an advertiser predetermining the specifications of his ad campaign, and then letting the bidding software to offer and contracts purchases on his behalf.

Banner Ad

A Banner Ad is online display ad. It is sometimes used to indicate a specific size of a physical display ad, but in digital marketing, refers to digital display ads across the web page.

Behavioral Targeting

Behavioral Targeting is an advertising strategy of reaching out to the customers with exactly what they have previously revealed to be interested in. Companies using behavioral targeting leave cookies in the browser history of their online users. Collected data is analysed, and segmented according to what interests the analysis reveal. Specific ads that are related to the user’s interests are then fed to the user the next time they are online. Onsite behavioral targeting tracks a user’s preference from a single site, whereas network behavioral targeting collects data from the various sites that the user had visited.

Below The Fold

Below The Fold refers to the lower section of a web page that a visitor has to scroll down to view its contents.

Bit Rate

The Bit Rate of a video translates to the speed it takes to load a video or audio file, e.g. high-definition videos are between 8-12 Mbps (megabites per second). Although a higher bit rate takes longer to load, it correlates to a higher quality. Choosing a suitable bit rate for your advertisement is important to avoid disruptive viewer experiences. Measured in Kbps or Mbps, ‘bit rate’ it is written with a lower ‘b’ and not to be confused with MBps, the ‘B’ here referring to a file size, in this case, megabytes.


A Bleed is the amount of excess surrounding an image or artwork that will be cut out (like an all-sided border) from the final work. It is usually between 1/8 to 1/4-inch. The purpose of a bleed is to give the ad a polished look without leaving a white border around the image. Programs like Adobe Illustrator allow a designer to add in the bleed it requires, between 0 to 72 points, that is sometimes called a margin of error.

In traditional printing terms, a bleed is the allowance calculated for cutting and binding printed sheets in addition to the final book size.


BlueKai is a cloud-based data platform designed for advertisers to design (online, offline, and mobile) marketing campaigns tailored specifically for their marketing needs.

Bounce Rate

A Bounce Rate is an advertising metric used to determine how many visitors (from the total number of visitors) of a website visit only a single page, and then leave the site.

Branded Content

Branded Content is a way for advertisers to have a content designed around promoting the brand owner’s product or service in a video. In return, the brand content contributes towards the video’s costs of production.

Broad Match

Broad Match is a tool within Google AdWords that triggers an advertiser’s ads to be shown when users search with keywords (that are broadly related) to the advertiser’s product or services.


A Bulletin is a 14 x 48-inch outdoor ad format.

Bumper Ads

A Bumper Ad is a video ad format that lasts for six-second or less. It was designed by Google for use on YouTube. These ads cannot be skipped and are ideal for mobile devices. Advertisers are charged per 1,000 views.

Call to Action

A Call To Action is an encouragement to respond to an ad resulting in an outcome including clicking on a digital ad or making a purchase. Some examples include Sign Up Now, Subscribe, or Get Started. YouTube also uses the term for video overlay ads.

Call To Action

A Call To Action is an encouragement for users to respond to an ad objective. Some examples include Sign Up Now, Subscribe, or Get Started. YouTube also uses the term for video overlay ads.

Canvas Ad

A Canvas Ad is an immersive, full-screen, video-format ad by Facebook. The ads can also be used for Instagram ad campaigns.

Carousel Ads

Carousel Ads is a format which allows advertisers to showcase 10 images within an ad that users can browse through by sliding to the next screen. Popular campaigns that use carousel ads include storytelling ads, sequencing ads, or stores that wish to highlight the top ten new products.

City Lights

City Lights are LED-lit display cases that are distributed in high-traffic locations like waiting platforms at train stations. The effect of light on the ads create a warmer and more realistic impression onto viewers.

Companion Banner

A Companion Banner is an added branded presence that is located on the top right-hand corner of your ad when your YouTube in-stream ad is playing. It can either be an auto-generated image from the chosen, or can be a separate image to upload. It is ideal for reinforcing the ad message or direct a call to action.

Completion Rate

A Completion Rate refers to the number of users who viewed the ad in its entirety, over the number of users the ad was shown to. Numbers that do not count towards a completion rate include users who skipped the ad, or clicked off the ad before it was over.

Contexual Targeting

Contextual Targeting finds relevant websites with a following who might be interested in an advertiser’s service. It uses a software that seeks through keyword matches, browser histories, and topic relevance, among other indicating factors, to present an advertiser with a potentially-interested audience.


Conversion refers to the process where visitors of a site become users. Conversion is the main objective of advertiser campaigns either to increase sales or to increase a following.


Conversion refers to the process where visitors of a site become users or customers. Conversion is the main objective of advertiser campaigns either to increase sales or to increase a following.

Conversion Rate

The Conversion Rate measures the number of users who responded to the call for action, over the total number of users who had visited the site.


Cookies are important tools for businesses in e-commerce and digital advertising. A cookie is a text file that is dropped into a user’s hard drive, so that browsers may read this information in the future to recognize that the user is a returning visitor to the site. This helps the business recognize user patterns and preferences in the unique user.


A copy (is the copywritten document of the product or service) that is written to be successfully marketed.


A Copyright acknowledges the ownership and exclusive user rights for the applicant. It is governed by local and international copyright laws to protect these works, and proper permission has to be applied for and given in writing in order for the work to be used by another party. Copyrighted materials can include images, phrases, brand names, and published works.

Cost Per Click (CPC)

Cost Per Click is the cost an advertiser pays the platform each time their ad has been clicked.

Cost Per Engagement

Cost Per Engagement is an advertising model that charges advertisers only when a viewer has engaged with their ad either by viewing, voting, sharing, or commenting. Ads are free, and viewers are able to mouse over a preview of the ad without having to leave the page they were visiting.

Cost Per Follower

Cost Per Follower refers to the cost to ‘purchase’ a follower on social media. The price range can be from free, to $4.00. Followers can be purchased from services like Buy Instagram Followers, and the purpose is to have an instant community for your product or service.

Cost Per Like

Cost Per Like is calculated by dividing the total advertising dollar spent, over the number of LIKES gained for the page.

Cover Photo

A Cover Photo is the first impression of a work or profile that is used to promote its related content in the form of a still image. For books, the cover photo is on the front cover of the book (or its dust jacket), whereas digital social media users can refer to this as the profile photo. Digital cover photos are publicly displayed and can be pulled out as images from a search.

Coversion Pixel

A Conversion Pixel is an analytics tool by Facebook that allows an advertiser to track where their conversion success took place. As an advertiser usually has ads streaming via a few medium, a conversion pixel will be able to provide information for the advertiser how many conversions took place over desktop or mobile users. In addition, an advertiser can add pixels to events within the conversion, e.g. searched keywords, to gain data on how they gained customers.


Cost Per Action or Cost Per Acquisition is what an advertiser pays to convert a user into a customer/follower.


Cost Per Install CPI) refers to the cost an advertiser pays publishers for each user who installs their mobile application. The ads are streamed across various sites and medium, but the advertiser only pays when the app has been installed.


In digital advertising, Cost Per Thousand Impressions (CPM) is the amount an advertiser has to pay to reach when their ad has been viewed a thousand times.

Cross Device

Cross Device refers to an advertising strategy that allows retargeting unique users over various medium rather than the isolated media they had visited from. This follows the buying pattern of a user who may begin a purchase on the phone, but continues the process on a desktop. Marketers are thus able to track the complete sales process across cycles when they have been picked up and continued, rather than assuming they were lost.


Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) is a programming language that customizes the factors that contribute to the look and feel of a web page, from its color to its font. It works together with a markup language like HTML, and the two programs together will create a webpage. There are three main styles for CSS: external style, internal style, and inline style. Each of these styles set the design from an entire page or a single component of a page.


A Click-Through Rate is the proportion of people who clicked on a designated hyperlink on a site (based on the objective of the ad), over the total number of people who visited the site. It measures the immediate response rate to an ad.

Custom Audience

A Custom Audience is a group of potential viewers for an ad campaign made up from the campaigner’s existing customer base.

Customer Acquisition

Customer Acquisition is the objective of marketing campaigns, i.e. to win customers for a company’s product or service.

Customer Acquisition Cost

A company’s Customer Acquisition Cost is calculated by the total spending in the sales and marketing efforts divided by the number of customers acquired over a specified time period.


Dayparting refers to the industry practice in radio and television broadcasting where a day is broken into several sections for easy reference for scheduling and advertising. It is generally broken into breakfast, daytime, national prime time, late night, and overnight parts.


There are 21 Designated Markets Areas in the US as defined by The Nielson Research Group. The areas are important as they establish ad sales prices that an advertiser will pay. The market areas are defined by the viewing habits of the people: which regional channels the majority of the population in an area view, determines which DMA they belong in (irregardless of their physical proximity to another area).

Deal Targeting

Deal Targeting refers to a specific buy on a packaged ‘deal’ or inventory from an exchange. It is sometimes traded as a Deal ID Targeting, where buyers are required to know the exact ID (online address) of the package in order to bud for it.


A Demo refers to content that has been produced (usually by an artiste or a production company) for presentation to interested or relevant buying parties.

Designated Marketing Area (DMA)

There are 21 Designated Markets Areas in the US and their definitions are stipulated by The Nielson Research Group. The areas are important as they establish the ad sales prices an advertiser will pay. The market areas are defined by the viewing habits of the people: what regional channels the majority of the population in an area view, determines which DMA they belong in (regardless if they are physically nearer to another area).

Detailed Targeting

Detailed Targeting is a tool by Google Ads that allows advertisers to refine the characteristics of their ideal customer. It involves preselecting the criteria for your ad to be placed, so that the people who view the ad will give the highest conversion rate. Thus, ad dollars are spent more efficiently, and effectively, i.e. the cost per conversion is lower.

Device Targeting

Device Targeting is an advertising tool by Google that allows advertisers to select, as a criteria, the specific digital devices that they would like to be on. It helps to determine how an ad will be formatted, determine the ideal viewer experience for the advertiser, and on that media, and encourages a seamless, immersive user experience.

Digital Engagement

Digital Engagement refers to the activities of people being involved in a discussion or situation via digital tools.

Display URL / Final URL

A Display URL is a suggestion by the search engine on which address the searcher is going to arrive at to get their desired content. It may be inaccurate to its final destination, i.e. the Final URL, which is the exact page over a websites many pages where the content lies.


Designated Market Area refers to a segmented market, e.g. by location (such as city or zip code), or by a predominant language demographic.


A Demand-Side Platform is a tool that allows ad buyers to manager their ad purchases across several exchanges or third-parties.

Dwell Time

Dwell Time is the actual amount of time a visitor stays on a web page before clicking away from it to another site.


e-Commerce refers parties conducting buying and selling transactions over a digital method, e.g. the internet.


EcoFlex signs are outdoor advertising display stands. They come in a few sizes and styles (between printed or chalkboard). Unlike aluminium billboards, EcoFlex signs can be customized in design and form to reflect a realistic image of the product.

Endemic Advertising

Endemic Advertising has an organic relationship to the market. It indicates a placement that connects to a specific audience in a natural manner. An example would be a rough looking ad for a new punk band in Maximum Rock ‘n’ Roll.

Endemic Advertising

Endemic Advertising has an organic relationship to the market. It indicates a placement that connects to a specific audience in a natural manner. An example would be a rough looking ad for a new punk band in Maximum Rock ‘n’ Roll.

Engagement Marketing

Engagement Marketing, rather than treat customers as passive users, actively invite potential customers to co-create features of the product so that the product becomes more relevant for them.

Enhanced Bidding

Enhanced Bidding, or Enhanced Cost-Per-Click (ECPC) Bidding is a tool by Google that acts on behalf of you against other competitors for the same ad space and ad time, by raising your bid for spots where the target viewers are most likely to to respond positively to your ad. Thus, it allows you to lower, maintain, or raise your bid against other advertisers so that your ad can reach your intended audience in the most cost-effective manner.

Exact Match

Exact Match is an advertising tool by Google that pops up your ad when a searcher keys in the exact same words that your ad contains.

Facebook Audience Network

Facebook Audience Network is an ad campaign model that lets Facebook advertisers reach their target audience outside (or off )the Facebook network.

Facebook Sales Funnel

Facebook Sales Funnel is an advertising strategy tool that allows an advertiser to fully customize their ad spend in the areas they are lacking, pr to improve the areas they need to further impress their product or service onto the potential viewer. This involves allocating ad dollars to customer exposure through leading campaigns (or content) to buy time to linger around the potential customers who may not yet be ready to convert.

File Compression

File Compression is the result of using a software that helps to reduce the digital space that a document takes up, so that it efficiently uses your hardware space for storage. The same software will then expand the file when you want to open it for use. An example of such a software is WinZip.

Flight / Hiatus

A flight refers to time during an advertising campaign when the ads are running. (At spots when the campaign is not running, it is called a hiatus.) Advertisers increasing use flights and hiatus in combinations during an ad campaign run so as to maximize their ads reaching only the most relevant target audience.

Fly posting

Fly posting (wild posting, and bill posting) refers to displaying ads that are being placed in unauthorized premises.


A Font is the style that a script (or ad) is written in. Related terms include font size, font style, and designs around the font.

Frame Rate

Frame Rate, measured by frames per second, measures the number of images (frames) that are being displayed on a television, computer screen, or motion-capture system. The frame rate affects the quality (or ease in which the video is displayed) and user experience with the ad.


Frames are the still images designed for screen-viewing.


Frequency refers to the repetition quantity of an event over a specific unit of time.

Frequency Cap

A Frequency Cap is an advertising strategy that limits the number of times an ad is repeated to the same user who visits the website several times.

Frequency Cap

Frequency Cap is an advertising strategy that limits the number of times an ad is repeated to the same user who visits a same website.

Frequency Capping

Frequency capping limits the number of times a unique visitor is shown a specific ad. Though some websites set such limits individually, they are typically set across an ad network.

Full Motion Display

The display of a video on a certain rate that allows the images to run smoothly and continuously.


Geofencing is in reference to the term ‘geofilters’ where a geographical parameter where the overlay will target to appear on users.


Geofilters are a feature tool from Snapchat. It is an image that is either preselected from Snapchat’s existing details, can be customized by Snapchat’s design team, or via service provider templates. The image is placed over a portion of the image snapped (taken). As snaps are visual images that are transient, i.e. they disappear after they are viewed, and cannot be stored, these geofilter overlaps only appear on users who are within a geographical range ‘geofencing’.


A geotarget is the specification to display an advertiser’s ad to the users in a specific location.


Graphics Interchange Format refers to the file format in which web-based images are compressed into. It is compressed with a specific LZW compressed algorithm.

Google Standard Banners

Google Standard Display Ads are advertising spaces on webpages across Google properties, e.g. YouTube and Zagat.

Hover Ads

Hover ads, also known as lightbox ads, are advertisements that pop up over the the content of the page selected by the user, usually obscuring part of the content. A user has to click the ad away in order to return to the content of the page.


A hyperlink is a line that underlines a specific text, called the hypertext. It usually refers to a page of content that is related directly to what was hyperlinked.

IAB Standards

IAB Standards are designed by the Interactive Advertising Bureau for ad formats and sizes to create an across-the-board standard for advertisers and publishers. Though many web publishers are open to unique formats, IAB Standards help reduce costs and enable extensive automation.

Image Optimization

Image Optimization is the efficient storing of image formats so that viewers can easily access and download the image.

Impression Discrepancy

Impression Discrepancy describes the difference between your impression count and an ad network’s impression count. Such discrepancy occurs due to differences in time zone, ad-blocking software, inefficient executions by ad servers, inaccurate impression records, lost impressions due to long download times, and technical malfunctions, e.g. the creative of the ad was not triggered to launch with the ad. Impression discrepancies result in lost advertising revenues, and thus are an important metric for publishers to monitor.


Impressions are the digital advertising views by users, and are used to convey that the advertiser’s ad had been watched by or displayed to the viewer.


An InDesign Document is created using the Adobe InDesign software, that can be used to produce works for publishing, e.g. posters, flyers, magazines, ebooks, or books.

Insertion Order

An advertiser’s Insertion Order is a purchase confirmation of the ad space from a publisher’s site.

Institial (Transition) Ad

Transition ads, or institials, are advertisements that are shown while a selected page is loading, i.e. between two web pages.


Interstitials, are advertisements that pop up between two web pages, usually while the second page is loading.

Interstitial Ads

Institial ads, or transition ads, are advertisements that are shown while a selected page is loading, i.e. between two web pages.


Inventory refers to a publisher’s total amount of ad space available (per month) for sale to an advertiser.


JPEG is a compressed format of saving and storing images.

Jr. Posters

Jr. Posters are outdoor advertising stands that are a smaller version of bulletins. Due to their reduced size, they can be easily placed in urban areas and smaller streets. They are commonly used for specifically targeting an audience that is relevant in their demographic and proximity to the advertiser.

JSON (Structured Message)

JSON is a subset of JavaScript Programming Language that is simplified for easier to write to transmit (and read) structured data over the network connection.

Keyword Match Types

Keyword Match Types are the options of keyword matches that connects a search result (or advertisement) to its typed-in keyword. Some types include Broad Match, Broad Match Modifier, Phrase Match, Exact Match, Negative Match, or No Keyword Match. Advertisers are required to specify the keyword match type that most suit viewers searching for their product group.


There are five Key Performance Inventories that help e-commerce businesses manage their performance: 1) The average number of days it takes to sell their inventory. 2) Their inventory write-off, i.e. their stock (and costs) that can no longer fetch revenue. 3) Their average inventory available (to enable sufficient supply to demand). 4) Their inventory turnover, i.e. the number of times their stock had been replenished. 5) Costs incurred in storing and maintaining inventory.

Landing Page

A Landing Page is the destination page that a viewer arrives at upon clicking on his choice from the search results.

Layered Artwork

Layered Artwork is a design format used in PhotoShop that creates an image over several layers. This allows the designer to edit isolated aspects of the image on its individual layer without distorting the format of the rest of the image. The opposite of a layered artwork is a flat artwork, where all the design elements are manipulated from a single layer.

Lead Ads

Facebook Lead Ads simplify the call to action prompts to viewers who are likely to be interested in an advertiser’s offer, by prefilling information that the viewer had previously used in Facebook. The viewer can choose to edit the information prior to submitting the form. This information is only accessible to the advertiser, and the advertiser is prohibited from reselling this data.

Lead Ads

Facebook Lead Ads simplify the call-to-action prompts to viewers who are likely to be interested in an advertiser’s offer, by prefilling information that the viewer had previously used on Facebook. The viewer can choose to edit the information prior to submitting the form. This information is only accessible to the advertiser, and the advertiser is prohibited from reselling this data.

Leaderboard Ad

A Leaderboard Ad is the prime ad spot on a web page, and the one a viewer sees first. It is a rectangle format measuring 728 x 90 pixels displayed across the top of a web page.

Lifetime Budget / Daily Budget

A Lifetime Budget is the total amount an advertiser sets on a Facebook campaign. It stipulates what the advertiser is willing to spend over the duration of an ad campaign, and lets Facebook manage the budget via its several buying tools. A Daily Budget is the total amount an advertiser sets for the ad spend for a day.

Line Item

A Line Item (as part of the design of an Ad Campaign Order) defines the conditions for an advertisement to be available. Common line items include an Order ID, Start Date, End Date, Rotation Type, Sizes, and Targeting.

Link Tag

A HTML Link Tag is a link used to connect the site’s information with an external source, and is written , where ref is the relationship between href (hyperlink) and the destination source.

Link Tracker

A Link Tracker embeds in its link tracking, mechanisms that accesses the user’s IP data. It is a unique link address (in it contains the final URL of the user-requested page) so that an campaign owner can assess or track where the visitors are coming from, and use that data for a more targeted marketing campaign.

Live Area

A Live Area of a digital ad is the exact size and image that a viewer sees. Graphic designers must thus include in their designs allowances beyond the live area dimensions.

Lookalike Audiences

Lookalike Audiences are made up of demographic and interest groups that are similar to an already identified group that is responsive to one’s advertising, and thus can be readily targeted.


Lopping is the replaying of a video over a set period of time. The number of loops the video is replayed depends on the duration of the video. A video that is 10 seconds long will replay a total of nine times over a 90-second loop.


Lossy describes the result of data compression where unnecessary information is discarded in the process.

Market Facing

Marketing Facing reflects the attitude of a company whose business decisions are centered on meeting their customers’ needs, wants, and expectations.


MetaTags are short phrases or snipplets of a main text that briefly describe the website’s content.


A Mockup is a model or replica built for an outdoor advertising client to experience how their ad will look in their chosen outdoor display format.


MOV (.mov) is a video file format developed by Apple, used primarily for the QuickTime video player.


MP4 (.mp4) is an international standard for a video file format for playing videos.

Native Ads

Native ads are a more subtle form of advertorials. These articles are less aggressive in their sales language, and the subject matter of the article is geared more towards an objective opinion or update to a situation or condition. The reader experience is usually positive as the reader becomes better-informed of the matter at hand, and is better acquainted with the reason why the product or service was created to meet this situation.

Native Advertising

Native Advertising is an advertising strategy where ads are designed as editorial content. It includes advertorials and encompasses a broader range of content formats in the digital business. An example would be an ad posing as a blog post on a music blog.

Negative Exclusion

Negative Exclusion is a method to customize specifications an advertiser’s specifications for an ad campaign. It can be used to determine an audience demographic (by excluding audience who are already customers), or excluding certain keywords that your product does not wish to be associated with.

Negative Keywords

Negative Keywords is a Google AdWords tool. It is a criteria that can be determined and managed by an advertiser to instruct AdWords not to display their ad to search results or websites that use that negative keyword.

Offline Tracking

Offline Tracking is a tool by Google AdWords that allow advertisers to manage their advertising conversions from an offline mode either into any AdWords software or Salesforce. It can be used to close sales bids, track analytics, and result in more efficient ad buys.

Open Exchange/ Private Exchange

An exchange in digital advertising refers to a marketplace for buyers and sellers of advertising ads. An Open Exchange makes this marketplace public and open for all interested parties and third parties to trade in. In contrast, a private exchange is run by a demand-side platform, that eliminates the middlemen, and promotes transparency between buyers and sellers.


OpenX is a digital marketplace for buying and selling digital advertising inventory.

Organic Clicks

Organic Clicks (search results) are results from a keyword search that appears for the user, that is not from advertising.

Overlays on Mobile

Overlays on Mobile are ads that display on the mobile screen, and will not close until the user engages with it, either to participate in a call-to-action, or to swipe it away.

Pay Per Impression

Pay Per Impression is a digital advertising cost model where an advertiser pays only each time their ad (impression) had been viewed.


Portable Document Format (PDF, .pdf) is a file storage tool that allows a fil’s information to be compressed, and then transferred effectively across softwares and platforms without distortion.

Pedi Cab

Pedicab Ads are moving ads placed on bicycles either attached with a billboard or a two to three-seater passenger seat. The ads are played either in the billboard display or are plasters onto the car seat of the bicycle, and can be viewed by pedestrians and drivers wherever the cyclist rides.


A Conversion Pixel is an analytics tool by Facebook that allows an advertiser to track where their conversion success took place. As an advertiser usually has ads streaming via a few medium, a conversion pixel will be able to provide information for the advertiser how many conversions took place from desktop or mobile users. In addition, an advertiser can add pixels to events within the conversion, e.g. searched keywords, to gain data on how they gained customers.


A Pixel is a tiny, square illumination on a screen. Many pixels form an image.

Pixel Tracking

Pixel Tracking requires adding bugs to viewed pixels of a web user. These pixels are downloaded into the user’s server, and used to track the user’s browsing behavior.


Private Marketplace, or Programmatic Private Marketplace, is an exclusive digital space where premium publishers offer their advertising space for select buyers. This is a M2M targeting space where publishers select their preferred advertisers that synergize with their content and reader profile.


Portable Network Graphics (PNG) is an image compression software that ensures no information is lost during the compression process. It is an open-source software and has replaced GIF to be the most widely-used format in the internet.


A Pop-Up Ad, or simply pop-up, is a form digital advertisement that appears on web pages to catch a viewer’s attention while they are browsing.

Power Editor

Power Editor is an advertising design tool by Facebook that allows an advertiser to create multiple ads, apply filters, and track ads’ performances.

Power Editor

Power Editor is an advertising design tool by Facebook that allows an advertiser to create multiple ads, apply filters, and track ads’ performances.


Pay Per Click (PPC) is an advertising cost model where an advertiser pays each time their digital ad has been clicked on by the user.


Pixels Per Inch (PPI) is the digital equivalence of print’s dots per inch (DPI). The PPI dictates the quality of the screen experience for the user. The term is used to guide designers towards matching their digital designs with the PPI of the medium, as different mediums have different PPIs (in resolution quality).

Preroll Ad

A Preroll Ad is a digital video ad (usually 10 to 15 seconds long) that is played to the viewer over their selected web page. The viewer can either click to stop the ad or view it to the end.

Prestitial Ad

A Prestital Ad is a digital still ad which is displayed over the page that the viewer has selected to view. The viewer has to close the ad before accessing the content.

Price Extensions

Price Extensions by Google AdWords offers an advertiser 8 more cards (menu) on their ad to list their service offerings so that a viewer may look beyond a generic company site, and access more directly a product or service they are interested in.

Programmatic Advertising

Programmatic Advertising removes human involvement in ad purchasing, and replaces the function by a software program. These programs are designed to communicate with the sellers at the ad exchanges either with real-time bidding or buying guaranteed ad impressions, as stipulated by the program owner.

Proximity Marketing

Proximity Marketing is an advertising strategy that targets people in the digital circumference of the advertiser. People who are in this range and have the correct equipment can choose to view the ad (transmissions).


A Photoshop Document (PS, .psd) is the file format that users save their Photoshop-created documents in. It can only be opened and used with the Adobe Photoshop Software.

Quality Score

Quality Score is an analytics metric by Google. It is assessed by a culmination of your click-through rate, the relevance of each of your ad’s keywords to its ad group, the ad’s landing page quality and relevance, the relevance of your ad’s text, and the history of your Adword’s performance. It is calculated by multiplying your cost per click by your maximum bid price to assess your rank in the ad auction process. A higher quality score tells you that your ad is relevant to the viewers, and thus you have a higher ranking, higher return on investment, and lower cost per click.


A Reach measures the total number of viewers who will be exposed to an ad. Its differentiating point from an impression is while an impression counts the number of times the ad has been viewed, a reach measures the number of unique viewers the ad has been exposed to.

Real Time Bidding

Real Time Bidding takes place instantaneously at the ad exchanges, where ad inventories are bought and sold.

Real-Time Bidding

Real Time Bidding buys ads instantaneously at the ad exchanges.

Relevance Score

Facebook’s Relevance Score is measured on a scale from 1 to 10 to assess if an ad is going to be interesting for the target viewer. Based on targeting specifications predetermined by an advertiser, Facebook measures the performance of the ad based on the speculated user experience. A high score indicates that Facebook expects users to respond positively to the ad, whereas a low score suggests that users are expected to be more likely to hide or skip the ad.


A Remnant refers to the remainder portion of an advertising-offering portfolio that did not get sold.

Resolution (PPI)

The Resolution of an image describes the sharpness of an image used. It is dependent on two factors: the quality of the pixels per inch and the size of the desired image.

Response Attribution

A Response Attribution studies the impact across a brand owner’s omni-channel marketing campaign with the following objectives: to assess by which channel their viewers predominantly responded by, to see how the various channels complement or compete with each other for viewers’ attention, and to see how how the brand is represented as a whole with the existing channel distribution, i.e. which channel to scale up or to scale down.

Responsive Ads

Responsive Ads are a newer ad format to Google’s Text Ads. The format of Responsive Ads is largely centered on a large image. Under this image, an advertiser can include their logo, the product description, and more headline characters. This allows an advertiser to have a better branding presence around the scenario (in the image) they are drawing for their viewers.


Retargeting refers to the practice of targeting consumers for displaying additional ads based on the user’s past indicators of interests or responses to digital advertising. This feature is widely offered by ad networks across social platforms and publishers’ websites.

Retargeting / Remarketing

Retargeting is an online, cookie-based advertising strategy that trails visitors of a site. Retargeting remembers the visitors on their site, and reappears in the form of an ad at a later time while the visitor is online browsing, with the objective to redirect the visitors back to their site.

Remarketing is a direct communication with a past visitor via email. Remarketing for e-commerce vendors utilize data from discarded shopping carts to reengage with these visitors via email, and remind them to check out or to complete their purchases.


A Request for Proposal (RFP) is a solicitation document that outlines the specifications for a job so that bidders can offer their prices for consideration to win the job.


Red-Green-Blue (RGB) is a color combination used in presentation design. The other models include Cyan-Magenta-Yellow-Black (CMYK), Hue-Saturation-Luminosity (HSL), and Hexadecimal-Numbers (HEX). Adjusting the shades of R,G,or B (or C,M,Y, or B) will produce different effects of the design.

Rich Media

Rich Media are the images, videos, or audio features that fill an ad (rather than an ad with just texts) to give a better user engagement and experience.


A Roadblock is an advertising strategy that eliminates an advertiser’s competitor during the time when their ad is being run. For digital advertising, this means that every available ad space within the website that a user is viewing contains only the ad of the advertiser. Roadblocks can be bought for a day, or for a longer period of time.


A Return On Investment (in digital advertising) is measured with a ratio of revenue dollars to costs, e.g. 5:1 ($5 earned for every dollar spent).

Rollover Ad

A Rollover Ad is an type of advertisement that expands when a user’s cursor moves over (rolls over) it.


A Run of Network is an advertising strategy that is cost-driven. In return for the lowest reach for the broadest audience, the advertiser does not have a say over which website, and which location within a website, but allows the ad placement tool to select based on what is available and on predetermined cost specifications, and run the ad.

Whilst RON is determined over a few websites, Run Of Site (ROS) is based on the the locations of an ad in a single website.

Self Serve

Advertisers who self-serve their advertising campaigns, perform the related tasks themselves rather than employ sales executives for the job.


Search Engine Marketing (SEM) is a term used to describe a marketing strategy employed for navigating search engines. Its singular objective to draw internet users to the company’s site. There are two main components of SEM: paid advertising, and search engine optimized design of the site. These two components lead the manner in which a company’s website interacts with the major search engines to reach its desired target audience. SEM can be used for increasing e-commerce sales, but also for promoting a positive and relevant brand awareness.

Share Of Voice

Share of Voice measures a digital advertiser’s exposure to a certain user group, within a certain time period, in comparison with other advertisers to the same constraints. Thus, it compares the percentage of ad space exposure it had over its competitors.

Site Skin

Site skins are advertising spaces within a company’s website for sale. They are located in non-intrusive space on the web page, often on side or in a corner where it can coexist with the content of the site without interrupting the user’s engagement with the site.

Skin / Takeover

Skins, like takeovers are digital ads which are displayed to a user in a full-screen format, thus pushing down their requested content. These ads are usually interactive, and can be closed (so they remain at the top of the screen) while the user continues browsing through the web page.


A Slot is a specific time period in which an ad is being aired or displayed.

Social Marketing

Social Marketing (not to be confused with social media marketing) is the employment of regular marketing strategies with the objective to promote social well-being as its priority over profit interests. Topics promoted via social marketing campaigns are directed towards physical and emotional health, e.g. quit-smoking and safe-sex campaigns.

Spec Sheet

A Spec Sheet applies to each format of advertising: it is a design recommendation that can influence the image size, text ratio, number of characters for texts, headlines, links, and other advise that can help the ad appear more effective.

Splash Page

A Splash Page is the first web page that a visitor is shown even before the home page of the user’s search. It could be in a page that first informs the user that the page they are going to enter has loud volume or age restrictions, or that lets the user choose the language to continue visiting the site in.

Split Testing

Facebook’s Split Testing allows advertisers to test a variable of an ad campaign within a group of of users (who are not informed of this experiment). The ads are similar but only a unique aspect of it is changed either in text or image or delivery method, so that the advertiser is able to track which of these variables was most attractive for users.

Spots / Loops

Spots are ad spaces on digital display billboards that are placed in high-traffic areas. Spots can be bought for a day or up to a year, and usually lasts for 8 seconds.

A loop is usually a 64-second time frame programmed for digital display billboards. At 8 seconds per ad, 8 advertisers can participate in a loop cycle. The ads are displayed in sequence and then replayed when the loop is completed.


A Supply-Side Platform (SSP) is a technology platform where website publishers can inform potential buyers of their available inventory. This information is collated and placed on an ad exchange for market forces to work. The platform is usually automated to accept orders and collect revenue without the publisher needing to perform further pre or after-sales support to their buyers.

Static Banner

A Static Banner is a still banner ad on a web page. It usually is an image that has a call-to-action button.


TrueView is an advertising model designed by Google for use within its search engine. It was designed in response to ad buyers’ uncertainties of whether their video ads were being viewed, i.e. what was the ad completion percentage. TrueView’s advertising model thus only charges advertisers when their ads have been viewed for at least 30 seconds, or completed, whichever is shorter.

Unique Users

Unique Users are individuals who request a web page during a given period of time, irregardless of how often they visit the page.

URL Tracking

URL Tracking allows advertisers to see where their visitors are coming from, so that they can assess which method of reaching out to these customers was the most effective.

UTM Parameters

UTM parameters, short for Urchin Tracking Module Parameters, is a key tool to establish the effectiveness of a digital advertising campaign as they navigate referrers to an online destination through ads.

UTM Trackings

Urchin Tracking Module (UTM) Tracking is a data-collection method that is used for profiling the visitors of a company’s digital presence, e.g. via their website. UTM Trackings help a company understand where the visitors of their site came from, and be able to assess their motivations for visiting their site. More precise than a cookie, UTM Trackings break down which site sent the visitor (utm_source), how the visitor was canvassed (utm_medium), which marketing campaign attracted the visitor, i.e. was it a specific product campaign or a general branding campaign (utm_campaign), which keyword was used by the visitor (utm_term), and which content the visitor is specifically interested in, e.g. was the visitor responding to a banner ad or a article link (utm_content). Using these five UTM parameters will enable a company to better capture their visitors’ psycho affiliations as they are dependable data to implement monetizing-sales campaigns with.

View retargeting

View Retargeting is a marketing strategy that displays ads to users based on the sites that the users have visited before. Thus, two users visited the same web page will be shown different ads at the same ad spot based on the types of websites they have visited before. View Retargeting thus tracks a user’s behaviour to pipe similar ads to the user in expectations for faster conversions because such ads are promoting products and services that have also shown to be interesting for the user.

View Through Rate

The View Through Rate calculates the percentage of viewers who completed the viewing of an ad (as opposed to others who skipped passed the ad) divided by the total number of people who have been presented the ad.

Viral Marketing

Viral marketing is a marketing technique that, similar to word by mouth, relies on people to use digital media to retransmit the information to others.


Wheatpasting is a advertising technique similar to graffiti, but rather than drawing directly on the public surface, posters are glued to the surface with a mixture of wheat and water.

Whitelist / Blacklist sites

Whitelist Sites are websites that a user allows the browser to display their advertisements. This permission is activated through an ALLOW or BLOCK function in a user’s Google Chrome settings. Sites that are allowed are whitelist sites. Sites that are blocked are Blacklist sites.


Wild posting (fly posting and bill posting) refers to the advertising tactic of displaying ads in unauthorized premises.


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